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Nick Andrew - TRS-80 - Hardware Mods

TRS-80 Hardware modifications

I owned my System-80 since about 1981 and used it actively until around 1992. During that time I modified it extensively because the design was simple enough for a child to understand, and I wanted the computer to be more powerful.

The modifications I made included the following. This is not in chronological order:

  • Add lower-case using an EPROM as a character generator. I got the character set out of one of the chip databooks and programmed the EPROM using a programmer owned by my friend Mark Simon.
  • Upgrade memory from 16 Kbytes to 32K, then 48K. This was done by soldering ram chips on top of the existing socketed chips. Only pins 15 and 14 (I think) were not connected in parallel; they were used to arbitrate between the banks of RAM.
  • Speed up the CPU from 1.77 MHz to 2 MHz and then 3.54 MHz. I never achieved 4 MHz, probably because my ROM chip was too slow.
  • Replace ROM chip with an EPROM and made minor changes to the BASIC interpreter inside. I don't recall ever trying for 4 MHz after doing this, nor do I recall exactly what changes I made to the 12 Kbyte ROM. I remember putting my own name into the EPROM. I might have changed the BASIC error messages to mixed case too.
  • Upgrade memory to 80 Kbytes. I did this by bank-switching two 32K chunks (so 32 + 32 + 16 = 80). That was useful for storing the DOS system files in the other bank.
  • Add a simple interrupt counter. This was my first attempt at a real-time clock. When DOS did disk I/O it would disable interrupts for a long time and the CPU would lose clock interrupt ticks. So the CPU would read this counter every time it processed a clock interrupt and would count how many missed interrupts there were, and adjust the clock accordingly. In practice it worked pretty well, but of course the time was not kept across reboots.
  • Add inverse video controlled by switch or I/O port. This would invert the whole screen contents. I thought it was cool for a while.
  • Install the Deakin University RS-232 controller board in my Dick Smith System-80 Expansion Unit. This was wired up to the bus somehow, but by the end I had completely redesigned the circuit and I was plugging it into the 20-pin expansion connector inside the Expansion Unit.
  • Replaced the keyboard connector with a DB25 plug/socket pair and made a 25-pin expansion cable so I could lie on my bed and type. This was a poor attempt at portability ... I was also far away from the screen so I couldn't see what I was typing, and the excessive cable length caused the keyboard signals to become corrupted. I abandoned the extension cable and kept the DB25. The System-80 used a semi-rigid wire-frame connector for the keyboard and to join the two main boards inside the computer. These connectors were notoriously unreliable and any change could only have been an improvement.
  • I added a "hard reset" pushbutton. The standard reset button causes an interrupt which the ROM passes to RAM (and can thus be caught/ignored). My reset button forces the CPU to start executing again at location zero.
  • I added an audio output jack at the back so the internal speaker could be plugged into a cassette recorder. I might also have added a switch to force use of the external cassette interface (all these details are getting murky ... I seem to recall that it was a problem sometimes that the user wanted to use the external cassette and the system chose the internal one).
  • I added various keys to the keyboard ... CLEAR and TAB? I remember by striking I, O and SPACE simultaneously that completed the matrix so the system believed that CLEAR had been pressed. I also added hard brackets, curly braces and the backslash key. Or was it underline?
  • I "improved" the System-80 power supply by changing the main transformer to a bigger one which produced a higher intermediate (AC) voltage. This was before the days of switchmode power supplies. The computer would crash sometimes on minor power disturbances in the house (heater use, fridge turning on, and the like) and the bigger transformer reduced that problem. Later I put in a much bigger Ferguson transformer which "solved" the power problems better ... at the cost of huge heat output, which melted the case under the transformer. I had to put the computer on a block of wood to stop the transformer melting its way right through the case.
  • I added a simple 4-bit resistor network to output 16 different voltage levels and thus make a better sound than the 3-level square wave which the ordinary audio output could do.
  • I added a joystick (ATARI switch type one) connected to the keyboard arrows and SPACE. This joystick was attached via a round pinned connector.
  • The CPU memory interface used maybe 3 D-type flip-flops to accomplish a 3 clock-cycle delay when reading or writing memory. I had already started using faster RAM chips (250 nS then 150 nS) and so these long delays were no longer required and I removed one wait state from the memory timing.
  • I changed my 80 Kbytes RAM to 256 Kbytes RAM using a very fast (13 ns?) cache ram chip on every memory lookup. It worked like this:
    • The chip was used to translate all memory accesses within the 48 Kbyte RAM address space. It didn't touch ROM or video memory or memory-mapped peripheral areas (such as the disk controller).
    • The chip mapped pages in 1 Kbyte chunks, so the 6 address inputs on the chip were connected to address lines A10 through A16. The 8 data outputs from the chip were connected to 8 x 256 Kbit RAM chips, becoming A10 through A18.
    • The chip was port-addressable so I could program it by writing bytes to I/O port 0x10. To do this I actually used an "undocumented" feature of the Z80, where an "OUT (C), A" instruction would actually place the contents of the register B on the top 8 bits of the address bus (allowing in effect, a 16-bit port address space). My chip programming involved mapping from a logical address (on the address lines) to a physical RAM address (on the data lines).
    • On power-up the system was able to load the first sector from the disk without using more than 1 Kbyte of memory, so that part worked even when the address translation chip was unprogrammed. I wrote a new boot sector which did an initial mapping of the address space and then loaded a new boot sector from sector one of the disk (which was, by default, a copy of sector zero anyway). Thus I achieved compatibility with the original system.
    • The boot sector mapping was tricky. It would map a known physical page into a known virtual page, then copy all the code to that known page. If the unknown physical page which was used to load the boot sector was the same as the known physical page, the code would be unaffected because it would be moved to the same memory area. After the move, the new code segment was executed, which would map all the rest of the pages.
  • I added a true real-time clock circuit using the MSM-5832RS clock chip and 2 AA NiCad batteries for power-off retention. This clock worked well, once the programming foibles of the chip were understood.
  • I added circuitry to the video memory to add wait states to video reads and writes until a horizontal or vertical retrace period occurred. This had the effect of virtually eliminating noise on the screen during video I/O. The original circuitry would just write at any time, and so the more I/O was done, the more white or black streaks would run through the display. It's possible I also added code to allow the CPU to detect when the retrace was in effect and optionally delay its writes (as opposed to hard-wiring the delays). I don't have the hardware anymore to go check the circuit, so just guessing here.
  • I replaced one or more 5 Volt regulators inside the CPU unit with more powerful versions (or maybe added heatsinks).
  • I unsoldered quite a few chips from the main board and soldered sockets in their place. This was good for when I killed a chip (which happened occasionally) but the danger was in destroying the delicate pads on the PCB. I ended up with a few short wire jumpers to replace broken pads.
  • I have pictures of most of these works, taken on 2001-04-13. I just have to find the time to retrieve the pics and make thumbnails and commentary.

This package contains some code I wrote which was specific to my modified hardware.

fast
This would set the CPU to high speed or normal speed.
memory
This program would set one of the two 32K memory chunks, when my computer had 80 Kbytes RAM. The chunks were useful primarily for storing the DOS files in memory, so that DOS would not need to reload parts of itself from disk for such simple operations as opening a file.
ram256k
The two programs in this directory manipulate the paged memory system.
realtime-clock
These programs set and query the hardware realtime clock.
restore
This program caches DOS system files in memory (as many as needed) and hooks into DOS so that requests are filled by copying memory rather than reading the modules from disk. I seem to recall that the original idea was somebody else's program and my program developed on that, to load more modules, and of course to use my unique paged memory subsystem to enable all the modules to be cached at once.

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